Sunday, June 2, 2019
Alexanders Empire :: essays research papers
Alexanders EmpireThe ancient Kingdom of Macedonia, situated in the join of modern Greece,was established by Perdiccas I about 640 B.C. Perdiccas was a Dorian, althoughthe Macedonian tribes included Thracian and Illyrian elements. Originally asemibarbarous and fragmented power, Macedon became tributary to Persia beneath the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes I and thereafter struggled to maintain itselfagainst Thracians and other barbarians and against the Hellenic cities of theChalcidice as well as Sparta and Athens.A new stage began with Archelaus (d.399 B.C.), who centralized the kingdomwith a system of roads and forts he also fostered the Hellenization of hispeople by inviting famous Greek artists, Euripides among them, to his court.Few regions gave much thought to Macedonia. The area was so primitive thatit seemed to survive to another age- it was a rude, brawling, heavy-drinkingcountry of dour peasants and landowning warriors. The language was Greek, but sotainted by barbari an strains that Athenians could not understand it. Macedoniaremained an outland. Growth of trade in the early fourth century promoted therise of several cities, yet when Perdiccas III, king of Macedonia, fell in 359B.C. while fighting the Illyrians the seaboard of his state was largely underAthenian control or in the hands of the Chalcidian league, grouped aboutOlynthus.Philip (382-36), brother of the dead king, was made regent for the infantheir, soon set parenthesis his nephew, and became outright king.Once power was his, the young monarch swiftly brought order to his domainby armed force when necessary, by diplomatic guile whenever he could, Philip setout to make Macedon the greatest power in the Greek world.Alexander was born in 356 to the first wife of Philip. As a teenAlexander was educated by Athenian philosopher Aristotle. By the year 337 all ofthe Greek city-states had been conquered or forced into an alliance by Philip.He was planning to blend their joint forces for an invasion of the Persian empirewhen he was assassinated in 336. Thus at the age of 20, Alexander became king ofthe Macedonians.After Philips death, some Greek cities under Macedonian rule revolted. In335 B.C. Alexanders army stormed the walls of the rebellious city of Thebes anddemolished the city. About 30,000 inhabitants were sold in slavery. Alexandersaction against Thebes discouraged, for a time, rebellion by other Greek citiesWith Greece under control, Alexander turned to his fathers plan forattacking the Persian Empire. In 334 B.C., he led an army of about 35,000infantry and sawhorse across the Hellespont from Europe to Asia.